CSRI Publications


Knudsen C, Casewell NR, Lomonte B, Gutiérrez JM, Vaiyapuri S, Laustsen AH. (2020). Novel Snakebite Therapeutics Must Be Tested in Appropriate Rescue Models to Robustly Assess Their Preclinical Efficacy. Toxins (Basel). 2020 Aug 19;12(9):E528.https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090528

Xie C, Albulescu LO, Bittenbinder MA, Somsen GW, Vonk FJ, Casewell NR, Kool J. (2020). Neutralizing Effects of Small Molecule Inhibitors and Metal Chelators on Coagulopathic Viperinae Snake Venom Toxins. Biomedicines. 2020 Aug 20;8(9):E297. https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8090297

Ainsworth S, Menzies SK, Casewell NR and Harrison RA. (2020). An analysis of pre-clinical efficacy testing of antivenoms for sub-Saharan Africa: inadequate independent scrutiny and poor-quality reporting are barriers to improving snakebite treatment and management. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 14(8): e0008579. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008579

Ahmed S, Hasan MZ, Pongsirid MJ, Ahmed MW, Szaboe S. (2020). Effect of extreme weather events on injury, disability, and death in Bangladesh. Climate and Development, https://doi.org/10.1080/17565529.2020.1772705.

Krause K, Jenkins TP, Skaarup C, Engmark M, Casewell NR, Ainsworth S, Lomonte B, Fernandez J, Gutierrez JM, Lund O, Laustsen AH. (2020). An interactive database for the investigation of high-density peptide microarray guided interaction patterns and antivenom cross-reactivity. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2020;14(6):e0008366. Published 2020 Jun 24. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0008366. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008366

Ainsworth S, Menzies S and Pleass RJ (2020). Animal derived antibodies should be considered alongside convalescent human plasma to deliver treatments for COVID-19.
Wellcome Open Research, https://doi.org/10.12688/wellcomeopenres.15990.1)

Xie C, Albulescu LO, Still KBM, Slagboom J, Zhao Y, Jiang Z, Somsen GW, Vonk FJ, Casewell NR, Kool J. (2020). Varespladib Inhibits the Phospholipase A2 and Coagulopathic Activities of Venom Components from Hemotoxic Snakes. Biomedicines. 2020 Jun 17;8(6):E165. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines8060165.

Laustsen AH, Ainsworth S, Lomonte B, Kini RM and Chávez-Olórtegui C. (2020). Editorial: Novel Immunotherapies Against Envenomings by Snakes and Other Venomous Animals Frontiers in Immunology, 11:1004. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01004.

Zancolli G, Casewell NR. (2020). Venom systems as models for studying the origin and regulation of evolutionary novelties. Molecular Biology and Evolution. msaa133, https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msaa133

Still KBM, Slagboom J, Kidwai S, Xie C, Zhao Y, Eisses B, Jiang Z, Vonk FJ, Somsen GW, Casewell NR, Kool J. (2020). Development of high-throughput screening assays for profiling snake venom Phospholipase A2 activity after chromatographic fractionation.
Toxicon Volume 184, September 2020, Pages 28-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.05.022

Casewell NR, Jackson TNW, Laustsen AH, Sunagar K. (2020). Causes and consequences of snake venom variation. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences Volume 41, Issue 8, August 2020, Pages 570-581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2020.05.006

Simões BF, Gower DJ, Rasmussen AR, Sarker MAR, Fry GC, Casewell NR, Harrison RA, Hart NS, Partridge JC, Hunt DM, Chang BS, Pisani D, Sanders KL (2020). Spectral diversification and trans-species allelic polymorphism during the land-to-sea transition in snakes. Current Biology (2020), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.04.061

Slagboom J, Mladić M, Xie C, Kazandjian T, Vonk F, Somsen G, Casewell NR, Kool J. (2020). High throughput screening and identification of coagulopathic snake venom proteins and peptides using nanofractionation and proteomics approaches. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 14(4): e0007802. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007802.

Albulescu L, Hale MS, Ainsworth S, AlSolaiss J, Crittenden E, Calvete JJ, Evans C, Wilkinson MC, Harrison RA, Kool J, Casewell NR. (2020). Preclinical validation of a repurposed metal chelator as an early intervention therapeutic for hemotoxic snakebite. Science Translational Medicine 12, eaay8314 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1101/717280

Conlon JM, Attoubb S, Musale V, Leprince J, Casewell NR, Sanz L, Calvete JJ. (2020). Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic and insulin-releasing components from the venom of the black-necked spitting cobra Naja nigricollis (Elapidae). Toxicon 2020, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxcx.2020.100030

Ahmed, Sayem, Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, Sultana, Marufa, Roth, Felix, Mahumud, Rashidul Alam, Kamruzzaman, Md., Hasan, Zahid, Mirelman, Andrew J., Islam, Ziaul, Niessen, Louis, Rehnberg, Clas, Khan, A K Azad, Gyr, Niklaus and Khan, Jahangir. (2020). Do employer-sponsored health insurance schemes affect the utilisation of medically trained providers and out-of-pocket payments among ready-made garment workers? A case–control study in Bangladesh. BMJ Open 2020;10:e030298. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-030298.

Giribaldi J, Kazandjian T, Amorim FG, Whiteley G, Wagstaff SC, Cazals G, Enjalbal C, Quinton L, Casewell NR, Dutertre S. (2020). Venomics of the asp viper Vipera aspis aspis from France. J Proteomics. 2020 Feb 19:103707. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2020.103707.

Neumann C, Slagboom J, Somsen GW, Vonk F, Casewell NR, Cardoso CL and Kool J. (2020). Development of a generic high-throughput screening assay for profiling snake venom protease activity after high-resolution chromatographic fractionation. Toxicon. 2020;178:61-68. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.02.015.

Xie C, Slagboom J, Albulescu L-O, Bruyneel B, Still KBM, Vonk FJ, Somsen GW, Casewell NR and Kool J. (2020). Antivenom Neutralization of Coagulopathic Snake Venom Toxins Assessed by Bioactivity Profiling Using Nanofractionation Analytics. Toxins 2020, 12(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12010053.


Yorick Post, Jens Puschhof, Joep Beumer, Harald M. Kerkkamp, Merijn A.G. de Bakker, Julien Slagboom, Buys de Barbanson, Nienke R. Wevers, Xandor M. Spijkers, Thomas Olivier, Taline D. Kazandijan, Stuart Ainsworth, Carmen Lopez Iglesias, Willine J. van de Wetering, Maria C. Heinz, Ravian L van Ineveld, Regina G.D.M. van Kleef, Harry Begthel, Jeroen Korving, Yotam E. Bar-Ephraim, Walter Getreuer, Anne C. Rios, Remco H. S. Westerink, Hugo J. G. Snippert, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Peter J. Peters, Freek J. Vonk, Jeroen Kool, Michael K. Richardson, Nicholas R. Casewell and Hans Clevers. (2019). Snake venom gland organoids. Cell. 2020;180(2):233-247.e21. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2019.11.038.

Hamilton BR, Marshall DL, Casewell NR, Harrison RA, Blanksby SJ, Undheim EAB. (2019). Mapping enzyme activity on tissue by functional-mass spectrometry imaging. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2019 Dec 18. doi: 10.1002/anie.201911390.

Casewell NR, Petras D, Card DC, Suranse V, Mychajliw AM, Richards D, Koludarov I, Albulescu LO, Slagboom J, Hempel BF, Ngum NM, Kennerley RJ, Brocca JL, Whiteley G, Harrison RA, Bolton FMS, Debono J, Vonk FJ, Alföldi J, Johnson J, Karlsson EK, Lindblad-Toh K, Mellor IR, Süssmuth RD, Fry BG, Kuruppu S, Hodgson WC, Kool J, Castoe TA, Barnes I, Sunagar K, Undheim EAB, Turvey ST. (2019). Solenodon genome reveals convergent evolution of venom in eulipotyphlan mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Nov 26. pii: 201906117. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1906117116.

Khan JAM, Ahmed S, Sultana M, Sarker AR, Chakrovorty S, Rahman MH, Islam Z, Rehnberg C, Niessen LW. (2019). The effect of a community-based health insurance on the out-of-pocket payments for utilizing medically trained providers in Bangladesh. Int Health. 2019 Nov 29. pii: ihz083. doi: 10.1093/inthealth/ihz083.

Chaisakul J, Alsolaiss J, Charoenpitakchai M, Wiwatwarayos K, Sookprasert N, Harrison RA, Chaiyabutr N, Chanhome L, Tan CH, Casewell NR. (2019). Evaluation of the geographical utility of Eastern Russell's viper (Daboia siamensis) antivenom from Thailand and an assessment of its protective effects against venom-induced nephrotoxicity. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Oct 23;13(10):e0007338. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007338.

Harrison RA, Williams DJ. (2019). Outlining progress since the first International Snakebite Awareness Day and some key challenges for next year. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 113, Issue 10, October 2019, Pages 577–578, https://doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trz096.

Case reports of tropical snakebite victims illustrate the vital humanitarian role and challenges of community action groups.
RSTMH Special Report on Snakebite. Edited by David Williams and Rob Harrison, Sept 2019.

Alatawi AD, Ahmed S, Niessen L, Khan JAM. (2020). Correction to: Systematic review and meta-analysis of public hospital efficiency studies in Gulf region and selected countries in similar settings. Cost Eff Resour Alloc 18, 6 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12962-020-0201-8.

Ahmed S, Hasan MZ, Laokri S, Jannat Z, Ahmed MW, Dorin F, Vargas V, Khan JAM. (2019). Technical efficiency of public district hospitals in Bangladesh: a data envelopment analysis.
Cost Effective Resource and Allocation, 2019 Jul 24;17:15. doi: 10.1186/s12962-019-0183-6.

Zietek BM, Still KBM, Jaschusch K, Bruyneel B, Ariese F, Brouwer TJF, Luger M, Limburg RJ, Rosier JC, V Iperen DJ, Casewell NR, Somsen GW, Kool J. (2019). Bioactivity Profiling of Small-Volume Samples by Nano Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Microarray Bioassaying Using High-Resolution Fractionation. Anal Chem. 2019 Aug 2. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.9b01261.

Bashford T, Joannides A, Phuyal K, Bhatta S, Mytton J, Harrison R, Hutchinson P. (2019). Nuancing the need for speed: temporal health system strengthening in low-income countries. BMJ Global Health, 2019; 4:e001816. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001816.

Albulescu LO, Kazandjian T, Slagboom J, Ainsworth S, Alsolaiss J, Wagstaff SC, Whiteley G, Harrison RA, Ulens C, Kool J and Casewell NR. (2019). A decoy-receptor approach using nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mimics reveals their potential as novel therapeutics against neurotoxic snakebite. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2019. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.00848

Khan JAM, Ahmed S, Chen T, Tomeny EM, Niessen LW. (2019). A Transparent Universal Health Coverage Index with Decomposition by Socioeconomic Groups: Application in Asian and African Settings. Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2019 Jun;17(3):399-410. doi: 10.1007/s40258-019-00464-9.

Ferraz CR, Arrahman A, Xie C, Casewell NR, Lewis RJ, Kool J and Cardoso FC. (2019). Multifunctional toxins in snake venoms and therapeutic implications: from pain to haemorrhage and necrosis. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 2019, Vol 7, Article 218. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2019.00218

Pulford CV, Wenner N, Redway ML, Rodwell EV, Webster HJ, Escudero R, Kröger C, Canals R, Rowe W, Lopez J, Hall N, Rowley PD, Timofte D, Harrison RA, Baker KS, Hinton JCD. (2019). The diversity, evolution and ecology of Salmonella in venomous snakes. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Jun 4;13(6):e0007169. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007169.

Petras D, Hempel BF, Göçmen B, Karis M, Whiteley G, Wagstaff SC, Heiss P, Casewell NR, Nalbantsoy A, Süssmuth RD. (2018). Intact protein mass spectrometry reveals intraspecies variations in venom composition of a local population of Vipera kaznakovi in Northeastern Turkey. J Proteomics. 2019 Feb 11. pii: S1874-3919(19)30047-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2019.02.004.

Ahmed S, Tariqujjaman M, Rahman MA, Hasan MZ, Hasan MM. (2019). Inequalities in the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension among Bangladeshi adults: evidence from a nationwide survey. Int J Equity Health. 2019 Feb 15;18(1):33. doi: 10.1186/s12939-019-0930-5.

Williams DJ, Faiz MA, Abela-Ridder B, Ainsworth S, Bulfone TC, Nickerson AD, Habib AG, Junghanss T, Fan HW, Turner M, Harrison RA, Warrell DA. (2019). Strategy for a globally coordinated response to a priority neglected tropical disease: Snakebite envenoming. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Feb 21;13(2):e0007059. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007059. eCollection 2019 Feb.

Ahmed S, Hasan MZ, MacLennan M, Dorin F, Ahmed MW, Hasan MM, Hasan SM, Islam MT, Khan JAM. (2019). Measuring the efficiency of health systems in Asia: a data envelopment analysis. BMJ Open. 2019 Mar 27;9(3):e022155. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022155.

Girish KS, Katkar GD, Harrison RA, Kemparaju K. (2019). Research into the Causes of Venom-Induced Mortality and Morbidity Identifies New Therapeutic Strategies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Jan 21. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0877.

Harrison RA, Casewell NR, Ainsworth SA, Lalloo DG. (2019). The time is now: a call for action to translate recent momentum on tackling tropical snakebite into sustained benefit for victims. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Jan 21. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/try134.

Clark GC, Casewell NR, Elliott CT, Harvey AL, Jamieson AG, Strong PN, Turner AD. (2018). Friends or Foes? Emerging Impacts of Biological Toxins. Trends Biochem Sci. 2019 Jan 13. pii: S0968-0004(18)30269-X. doi: 10.1016/j.tibs.2018.12.004.


Whiteley G, Casewell NR, Pla D, Quesada-Bernat S, Logan RAE, Bolton FMS, Wagstaff SC, Gutiérrez JM, Calvete JJ, Harrison RA. (2018). Defining the pathogenic threat of envenoming by South African shield-nosed and coral snakes (genus Aspidelaps), and revealing the likely efficacy of available antivenom. J Proteomics. 2018 Oct 2. pii: S1874-3919(18)30360-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2018.09.019.

Herrera C, Bolton F, Arias AS, Harrison RA, Gutiérrez JM. (2018). Analgesic effect of morphine and tramadol in standard toxicity assays in mice injected with venom of the snake Bothrops asper. Toxicon. 2018. 154:35-41. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.09.012. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Zietek BM, Mayar M, Slagboom J, Bruyneel B, Vonk FJ, Somsen GW, Casewell NR, Kool J. (2018). Liquid chromatographic nanofractionation with parallel mass spectrometric detection for the screening of plasmin inhibitors and (metallo)proteinases in snake venoms.
Anal Bioanal Chem. 2018 Sep;410(23):5751-5763. doi: 10.1007/s00216-018-1253-x. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Calvete JJ, Casewell NR, Hernández-Guzmán U, Quesada-Bernat S, Sanz L, Rokyta DR, Storey D, Albulescu LO, Wüster W, Smith CF, Schuett GW, Booth W. (2018). Venom Complexity in a Pitviper Produced by Facultative Parthenogenesis.Sci Rep. 2018 Aug 1;8(1):11539. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-29791-y.

Perry BW, Card DC, McGlothlin JW, Pasquesi GIM, Adams RH, Schield DR, Hales NR, Corbin AB, Demuth JP, Hoffmann FG, Vandewege MW, Schott RK, Bhattacharyya N, Chang BSW, Casewell NR, Whiteley G, Reyes-Velasco J, Mackessy SP, Storey KB, Biggar KK, Passow CN, Kuo CH, McGaugh SE, Bronikowski AM, de Koning J, Edwards SV, Pfrender ME, Minx P, Brodie ED 3rd, Brodie ED Jr, Warren WC, Castoe TA. (2018). Molecular adaptations for sensing and securing prey and insight into amniote genome diversity from the garter snake genome. Genome Biol Evol. 2018 Jul 30. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evy157.

Vanzolini KL, Ainsworth S, Bruyneel B, Herzig V, Seraus MGL, Somsen GW, Casewell NR, Cass QB, Kool J. (2018). Rapid ligand fishing for identification of acetylcholinesterase-binding peptides in snake venom reveals new properties of dendrotoxins. Toxicon. 2018 Jul 7;152:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.06.080.

Marshall BM, Casewell NR, Vences M, Glaw F, Andreone F, Rakotoarison A, Zancolli G, Woog F, Wüster W. (2018). Widespread vulnerability of Malagasy predators to the toxins of an introduced toad. Curr Biol. 2018 Jun 4;28(11):R654-R655. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.04.024.

Slagboom, Julien, Otvos, Reka A, Cardoso, Fernanda C, Iyer, Janaki, Visser, Jeroen C, van Doodewaerd, Bjorn R, McCleary, Ryan J R, Niessen, Wilfried M A, Somsen, Govert W, Lewis, Richard J, Kini, R Manjunatha, Smit, August B, Casewell, Nicholas and Kool, Jeroen. (2018). Neurotoxicity fingerprinting of venoms using on-line microfluidic AChBP profiling. Toxicon, 2018, Vol 148, pp. 213-222 doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2018.04.022.

Ainsworth, Stuart, Slagboom, Julien, Alomran, Nessrin, Pla, Davinia, Alhamdi, Yasir, King, Sarah, Bolton, Fiona M. S., Gutiérrez, José María, Vonk, Freek J., Toh, Cheng-Hock, Calvete, Juan J., Kool, Jeroen, Harrison, Robert and Casewell, Nicholas. (2018). The paraspecific neutralisation of snake venom induced coagulopathy by antivenoms. Communications Biology, (2018) Vol 1, e34. doi.org/10.1038/s42003-018-0039-1.


Arbuckle K, Rodríguez de la Vega RC, Casewell NR. (2017). Coevolution takes the sting out of it: Evolutionary biology and mechanisms of toxin resistance in animals. Toxicon. 2017 Dec 15;140:118-131. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.10.026. Epub 2017 Oct 27. Review.

Harrison RA, Oluoch GO, Ainsworth S, Alsolaiss J, Bolton F, Arias AS, Gutiérrez JM, Rowley P, Kalya S, Ozwara H, Casewell NR. (2017). Preclinical antivenom-efficacy testing reveals potentially disturbing deficiencies of snakebite treatment capability in East Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Oct 18;11(10):e0005969. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005969. eCollection 2017 Oct.

Gutiérrez JM, Calvete JJ, Habib AG, Harrison RA, Williams DJ, Warrell DA. (2017). Snakebite envenoming. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2017 Sep 14;3:17063. doi: 10.1038/nrdp.2017.63. Review.

Ainsworth S, Petras D, Engmark M, Süssmuth RD, Whiteley G, Albulescu LO, Kazandjian TD, Wagstaff SC, Rowley P, Wüster W, Dorrestein PC, Arias AS, Gutiérrez JM, Harrison RA, Casewell NR, Calvete JJ. (2017). The medical threat of mamba envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa revealed by genus-wide analysis of venom composition, toxicity and antivenomics profiling of available antivenoms. J Proteomic. pii: S1874-3919(17)30303-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2017.08.016.

Rogalski A, Soerensen C, Op den Brouw B, Lister C, Dashevsky D, Arbuckle K, Gloria A, Zdenek CN, Casewell NR, Gutiérrez JM, Wüster W, Ali SA, Masci P, Rowley P, Frank N, Fry BG. (2017). Differential procoagulant effects of saw-scaled viper (Serpentes: Viperidae: Echis) snake venoms on human plasma and the narrow taxonomic ranges of antivenom efficacies. Toxicol Lett. 280: 159-170. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.08.020.

Casewell NR (2017). Evolution: Gene Co-option Underpins Venom Protein Evolution.
Curr Biol. 2017 Jul 10;27(13):R647-R649. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.05.091.

Herrera M, Segura Á, Sánchez A, Sánchez A, Vargas M, Villalta M, Harrison RA, Gutiérrez JM, León G. (2017). Freeze-dried EchiTAb+ICP antivenom formulated with sucrose is more resistant to thermal stress than the liquid formulation stabilized with sorbitol. Toxicon. 2017 May 3. pii: S0041-0101(17)30145-9. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon. 2017.05.006.

Debono J, Dobson J, Casewell NR, Romilio A, Li B, Kurniawan N, Mardon K, Weisbecker V, Nouwens A, Kwok HF, Fry BG. (2017). Coagulating Colubrids: Evolutionary, Pathophysiological and Biodiscovery Implications of Venom Variations between Boomslang (Dispholidus typus) and Twig Snake (Thelotornis mossambicanus). Toxins (Basel). 19;9(5). pii: E171. doi: 10.3390/toxins9050171.

Casewell NR, Visser JC, Baumann K, Dobson J, Han H, Kuruppu S, Morgan M, Romilio A, Weisbecker V, Ali SA, Debono J, Koludarov I, Que I, Bird GC, Cooke GM, Nouwens A, Hodgson WC, Wagstaff SC, Cheney KL, Vetter I, van der Weerd L, Richardson MK, Fry BG. (2017). The Evolution of Fangs, Venom, and Mimicry Systems in Blenny Fishes.
Current Biology, Volume 27, Issue 10, 22 May 2017, Pages 1549-1550. pii: S0960-9822(17)30269-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.02.067.

Slagboom J, Kool J, Harrison RA, Casewell NR. (2017). Haemotoxic snake venoms: their functional activity, impact on snakebite victims and pharmaceutical promise. British Journal of Haematology 177(6):947-959. doi: 10.1111/bjh.14591. Epub 2017 Feb 24.

Han H, Baumann K, Casewell NR, Ali SA, Dobson J, Koludarov I, Debono J, Cutmore S, Rajapakse NW, Jackson TNW, Jones R, Hodgson WC, Fry BG, Kuruppu S. (2017). The cardiovascular and neurotoxic effects of the venoms of six cartilaginous and bony fish species. Toxins (Basel). 2017 Feb 16;9(2):67. doi: 10.3390/toxins9020067.

Pla D, Sanz L, Whiteley G, Wagstaff SC, Harrison RA, Casewell NR, Calvete JJ. (2017). What killed Karl Patterson Schmidt? Combined venom gland transcriptomic, venomic and antivenomic analysis of the South African green tree snake (the boomslang), Dispholidus typus. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – General Subjects. 1861: 814–823


Whiteley, G, Logan, RE, Leung, K-Y, Newberry, F, Rowley, PD, Dunbar, JP, Wagstaff, SC, Casewell, NR, Harrison, RA. (2016) Stabilising the Integrity of Snake Venom mRNA Stored Under Tropical Field Conditions Expands Research Horizons. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004615

 Harrison RA, and Gutiérrez J-M. (2016) Priority Actions and Progress to Substantially and Sustainably Reduce the Mortality, Morbidity and Socioeconomic Burden of Tropical Snakebite. Toxins 8, 351; doi:10.3390/toxins8120351.

 Simões BF, Sampaio FL, Douglas RH, Kodandaramaiah U, Casewell NR, Harrison RA, Hart NS, Partridge JC, Hunt DM, Gower DJ. (2016). Visual pigments, ocular filters and the evolution of snake vision. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 33(10), 2483-2495. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msw148

 Casewell NR. (2016). Venom evolution: gene loss shapes phenotypic adaptation. Current Biology. 26, R849-R851. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.07.082.


Gutiérrez J-M, Burnouf T, Harrison RA, Calvete JJ, Brown N, Warrell, DA & Williams DJ, (2015) A call for incorporating social research in the global struggle against snakebite. PLoS NTD DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003960.

Ujvari B*, Casewell NR*, Sunagar K*, Arbuckle K, Wüster W, Lo N, O’Meally D, Beckmann C, King GF, Deplazes E, Madsen T. (2015) Widespread convergence in toxin resistance by predictable molecular evolution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 112(38), 11911-11916.*these authors contributed equally.

Dunbar JP, Dunbar T. 2015. Ahaetulla prasina (Asian Vinesnake). Diet and feeding behavior. Herpetological Review. 46(2).

Jouiaei M*, Casewell NR*, Yanagihara AA, Nouwens A, Cribb BW, Whitehead D, Jackson TNW, Ali SA, Wagstaff SC, Koludarov I, Alewood P, Hansen J, Fry BG. 2015. Firing the sting: chemical discharge of cnidae reveals novel proteins and peptides from box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) venom. Toxins. 7, 936-950. doi: 10.3390/toxins7030936. *these authors contributed equally.

Junqueira-de-Azevado ILM, Val Bastos CM, Ho PL, Luna MS, Yamanouye N, Casewell NR. 2015. Venom-related transcripts from Bothrops jararaca tissues provide novel molecular insights into the production and evolution of snake venom. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 32(3), 754-766. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msu337.

Reyes-Velasco J, Card DC, Andrew AL, Shaney KJ, Adams RH, Schield DR, Casewell NR, Mackessy SP, Castoe TA. 2015. Expression of venom gene homologs in diverse python tissues suggests a new model for the evolution of snake venom. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 32(1), 173-183. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msu294.

Lecht S, Ciaverelli RA, Gerstenhaber J, Calvete JJ, Lazarovici P, Casewell NR, Harrison R, Lelkes PI, Marcinkiewicz C. 2015. Anti-angiogenic activities of snake venom CRISP isolated from Echis carinatus sochureki. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – General Subjects. 1850(6), 1169-1179. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2015.02.002.

Ali SA, Jackson TNW, Casewell NR, Low DHW, Rossi S, Baumann K, Fathinia B, Visser J, Nouwens A, Hendrikx I, Jones A, Undheim E, Fry BG. 2015. Extreme venom variation in Middle Eastern vipers: a proteomics comparison of Eristicophis macmahonii, Pseudocerastes fieldi and Pseudocerastes persicus. Journal of Proteomics. 116, 106-113. doi: 10.1016/j.prot.2014.09.003.

Casewell NR, Sunagar K, Takacs Z, Calvete JJ, Jackson TNW, Fry BG. 2015. Snake venom metalloprotease enzymes. pp. 347-363. In: Fry BG (Editor), Venomous reptiles & their toxins: evolution, pathophysiology and biodiscovery. Oxford University Press, New York, USA. ISBN: 978-0199309399.

Fry BG, Sunagar K, Casewell NR, Kochva E, Roelants K, Scheib H, Wüster W, Vidal N, Young B, Burbrink F, Pyron RA, Vonk FJ, Jackson TNW. 2015. The origin and evolution of the Toxicofera reptile venom system. pp. 1-31. In: Fry BG (Editor), Venomous reptiles & their toxins: evolution, pathophysiology and biodiscovery. Oxford University Press, New York, USA. ISBN: 978-0199309399.

Fry BG, Undheim EAB, Jackson TNW, Georgieva D, Vetter I, Calvete JJ, Scheib H, Cribb BW, Yang DC, Daly NL, Manchadi MLR, Gutiérrez JM, Roelants K, Lomonte B, Nicholson GM, Dziemborowicz S, Lavergne V, Ragnarsson L, Rash LD, Mobli M, Hodgson WC, Casewell NR, Nouwens A, Wagstaff SC, Ali SA, Whitehead DL, Herzig V, Monagle P, Kurniawan ND, Reeks T, Sunagar K. 2015. Research methods. pp. 153-214. In: Fry BG (Editor), Venomous reptiles & their toxins: evolution, pathophysiology and biodiscovery. Oxford University Press, New York, USA. ISBN: 978-0199309399.

Fry BG, Koludarov I, Jackson TNW, Holford M, Terrat Y, Casewell NR, Undheim EAB, Vetter I, Ali SA, Low DHW, Sunagar K. 2015. Seeing the woods for the trees: understanding venom evolution as a guide for biodiscovery. pp. 1-36. In: King GF (Editor), Venoms to drugs: venom as a source for the development of human therapeutics. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, UK. ISBN: 978-1849736633. 


Gutiérrez J-M, Burnouf T, Harrison RA, Calvete JJ, Kuch U, Warrell DA & Williams DJ, (2014) A multicomponent strategy to improve the availability of antivenom for treating snakebite envenoming, Bull WHO, 92(7):526-32. doi: 10.2471/BLT.13.132431.

Casewell NR, Wagstaff SC, Wüster W, Cook DAN, Bolton FMS, King SI, Pla D, Sanz L, Calvete JJ, Harrison RA. 2014. Medically important differences in snake venom composition are dictated by distinct postgenomic mechanisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 111(25), 9205-9210. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1405484111. Cover article.

Archer J, Whiteley G, Casewell NR, Harrison RA, Wagstaff SC. 2014. VTBuilder – a tool for the assembly of variant transcriptomes. BMC Bioinformatics. 15, 389. doi: 10.1186/s12859-014-0389-8.

Baumann K*, Casewell NR*, Ali SA, Jackson TNW, Vetter I, Dobson JS, Cutmore SC, Nouwens A, Lavergne V, Fry BG. 2014. A ray of venom: combined proteomic and transcriptomic investigation of fish venom composition using barb tissue from the blue-spotted stingray (Neotrygon kuhlii). Journal of Proteomics. 109C, 188-198. doi: 10.1016/j.prot.2014.06.004. *these authors contributed equally.

Jesupret C, Jackson TNW, Ali SA, Baumann K, Yang D, Greisman L, Kern L, Casewell NR, Undheim EAB, Koludarov I, Debono J, Low DHW, Rossi S, Panagides N, Winters K, Ignjatovic V, Summerhayes R, Jones A, Nouwens A, Dunstan N, Hodgson WC, Winkel K, Monagle P, Fry BG. 2014. Vintage venoms: proteomic and pharmacological stability of snake venoms stored for up to eighty years. Journal of Proteomics. 105, 285-294. doi: 10.1016/j.prot.2014.01.004.

Sunagar K, Casewell NR, Varma S, Kolla R, Antunes A, Moran Y. 2014. Deadly innovations: unraveling the molecular evolution of animal venoms. In: Gopalkrishnakone P (Editor), Calvete JJ (Section Editor), Venom Genomics and Proteomics, Handbooks of Toxinology. Springer Netherlands. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-6649-5_27-1 


Gutierrez J-M, Warrell DA, Williams DJ, Jensen S, Brown N, Calvete JJ, and Harrison RA. (2013) The need for full integration of snakebite envenoming within a global strategy to combat the Neglected Tropical Diseases: The way forward. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(6) e2162.

Vonk FJ*, Casewell NR*, Henkel CV, Heimburg A, Jansen HJ, McCleary RJR, Kerkkamp HME, Vos R, Guerreiro I, Calvete JJ, Wüster W, Woods AE, Logan JM, Harrison RA, Castoe TA, de Koning APJ, Pollock DD, Renjifo C, Currier RB, Salgado D, Pla D, Sanz L, Hyder AS, Ribeiro JMC, Arntzen JW, van den Thillart GEEJ, Boetzer M, Pirovano W, Dirks RP, Spaink HP, Duboule D, McGlinn E, Kini RM, Richardson MK. 2013. The king cobra genome reveals dynamic evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 110(51), 20651-20656. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1314702110. Cover article. *these authors contributed equally.

Castoe TA, de Koning APJ, Hall KT, Card DC, Schield DR, Fujita MK, Ruggiero RP, Degner JF, Daza JM, Gu W, Reyes-Velasco J, Shaney KJ, Castoe JM, Fox SE, Poole AW, Polanco D, Dobry J, Vandewege MW, Li Q, Schott R, Kapusta A, Minx P, Feschotte C, Uetz P, Ray DA, Hoffman F, Bogden R, Smith EN, Chang BSW, Vonk FJ, Casewell NR, Henkel C, Richardson MK, Mackessy SP, Bronikowski AM, Yandell M, Warren WC, Secor SM, Pollock DD. 2013. The Burmese python genome reveals the molecular basis for extreme adaptation in snakes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 110(51), 20645-20650. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1314475110.

Casewell NR, Wüster W, Vonk FJ, Harrison RA, Fry BG. 2013. Complex cocktails: the evolutionary novelty of venoms. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 28, 219-229. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2012.10.020. Cover article.

Sunagar K, Fry BG, Jackson TNW, Casewell NR, Undheim EAB, Vidal N, Ali SA, King GF, Vasudevan K, Vasconcelos V, Antunes A. 2013. Molecular evolution of vertebrate neurotrophins: co-option of the highly conserved nerve growth factor gene into the advanced snake venom arsenal. PLoS ONE. 8(11), e81827. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081827.

Conlon JM, Attoub S, Arafat H, Mechkarska M, Casewell NR, Harrison RA, Calvete JJ. 2013. Cytotoxic activities of [Ser49] phospholipase A2 from the venom of the saw-scaled vipers Echis ocellatus, E. coloratus, E. pyramidum leakeyi, E. carinatus sochureki. Toxicon 71, 96-104. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2013.05.017.

Brust A, Sunagar K, Undheim EAB, Vetter I, Yang D, Casewell NR, Ruder T, Jackson TNW, Koludarov I, Alewood PF, Hodgson WC, Lewis RJ, King GF, Antunes A, Hendrikx I, Fry BG. 2013. Differential evolution and neofunctionalization of snake venom metalloproteinase domains. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics. 12, 651-663. doi: 10.1074/mcp.m112.023135. 


Fahmi L, Makran B., Pla D, Sanz L. Oukkache N, Lkhider M, Harrison RA, Ghalim N and Calvete JJ. (2012) Venomics and antivenomics profiles of North African Cerastes cerastes and C. vipera populations reveals a potentially important therapeutic weakness. J. Proteomics 75:2442-2453.

Vaiyapuri S, Hutchinson GE, Ali, MS, Dannmoura A, Stanley RG, HarrisonRA, Bicknall AB, and GibbinsJM. (2012) Rhinocetin, a venom–derived integrin-specific antagonist inhibits collagen induced platelet and endothelial cell functions. J Biological Chemistry doi/10.1074/jbc.M112.381483.

Sanz L, Harrison RA, Calvete JJ. (2012) First draft of the genomic organization of a PIII-SVMP gene. Toxicon 60(4):455-69.

Currier RB, Calvete JJ, Sanz L, Harrison RA, Rowley PD, Wagstaff SC (2012) Unusual stability of messenger RNA in snake venom reveals gene expression dynamics of venom replenishment. PLoS One 7(8):e41888.

Casewell NR, Huttley GA, Wüster W. 2012. Dynamic evolution of venom proteins in squamate reptiles. Nature Communications 3, 1066. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2065.

Casewell NR. 2012. On the ancestral recruitment of metalloproteinases into the venom of snakes. Toxicon 60(4), 449-454. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.02.006.

Fry BG, Scheib H, Junqueira-de-Azevado ILM, Silva DA, Casewell NR. 2012. Novel transcripts in the maxillary venom glands of advanced snakes. Toxicon 59(7-8), 696-708. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.03.005.

Fry BG, Casewell NR, Wüster W, Vidal N, Young B, Jackson T. 2012. The structural and functional diversification of the Toxicoferan reptile venom system. Toxicon 60(4), 434-448. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.02.013. 


Vaiyapuri S., Wagstaff, S.C., HarrisonR.A., Watson, K.A., GibbinsJ.M., and Hutchinson G. E. (2011) Evolutionary analysis of novel serine proteases in the venom gland transcriptome of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros. PLoS One 6(6):e21532.

Petras, D., Sanz, L., Segura, A., Herrera, M., Villalta, M., Solano, D., Vargas, M., Leon, G., Warrell, D.A., Theakston, R.D.G., Harrison, R.A., Durfa, N., Nasidi, A., Gutierrez, J-M., Calvete, J.J. (2011) Snake venomics of the African spitting cobras: Toxin composition and assessment of congeneric cross-reactivity of the Pan-African EchiTAb-Plus-ICP antivenom by antivenomics and neutralization approaches. Journal of Proteomic Research 10:1266-1280.

Casewell NR, Wagstaff SC, Harrison RA, Renjifo C, Wüster W. 2011. Domain loss facilitates accelerated evolution and neofunctionalization of duplicate snake venom metalloproteinase toxin genes. Molecular Biology and Evolution.  28(9): 2637-2649. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msr091.

Casewell NR, Wagstaff SC, Harrison RA, Wüster W. 2011. Gene tree parsimony of multi-locus snake venom protein families reveals species tree conflict as a result of multiple parallel gene loss. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28(3): 91-110. doi: 10/1093/molbev/msq302. 

Harrison RA, Cook DA, Renjifo C, Casewell NR, Currier RB, Wagstaff SC. 2011. Research strategies to improve snakebite treatment: challenges and progress. Journal of Proteomics. 74(9): 1768-1780. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2011.06.019.

Williams DJ, Gutiérrez J-M, Calvete JJ, Wüster W, Ratanabanangkoon K, Paiva O, Brown N, Casewell NR, Harrison RA, Rowley P, Jensen SD, Winkel KD, Warrell DA. 2011. Ending the drought: new strategies for improving the flow of affordable, effective antivenoms in Asia and Africa. Journal of Proteomics. 74(9): 1735-1767. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2011.05.027. 


Casewell NR, Cook DAN, Wagstaff SC, Nasidi A, Durfa N, Wüster W, Harrison RA. 2010. Pre-clinical assays predict pan-African Echis viper efficacy for a species-specific antivenom. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 4(10): e851. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000851.

Williams D., GutiérrezJ-M., Harrison R.A., WarrellD.A., WhiteJ., WinkelK.D., GopalakrishnakoneP. (2010) The Global Snake Bite Initiative: an antidote for snake bite:  The Lancet, 375, January 2.

Segura A., Villalta M., Herrera M., León G., Harrison R.A., Durfa N., Nasidi A., Calvete  J.J., Theakston R.D.G., Warrell D.A. and Gutiérrez J-M. (2010) Preclinical assessment of the efficacy of a new antivenom (EchiTAb-Plus-ICPÒ) for the treatment of viper envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa. Toxicon, 55:369-374.

Fasoli E., Sanz  L., Wagstaff S., Harrison R.A., Righetti, P.G., Calvete J.J. (2010) Exploring the venom proteome of the African puff adder, Bitis arietans, using a combinatorial library approach at different pHs. Journal of Proteomics 73:932-942.

Currier  R.B., Harrison R.A., Rowley P.D., Laing  G.D. and WagstaffS.C. (2010) Intra-specific variation in venom of the African Puff Adder (Bitis arietans): differential expression and activity of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Toxicon, 55:864-873.

Vaiyapuri S., GibbinsJ.M., Harrison R.A., and Hutchinson G. (2010) Purification and functional characterisation of rhinocerase, a novel serine protease from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros. PLOS One, 5(3):e9687.

Cook, D.A.N., Owen, T., Wagstaff, S.C., Kinne, J., Wernery, U. and Harrison, R.A. (2010a) Analysis of camelid IgG for antivenom development: serological responses of venom-immunised camels to prepare either monospecific or polyspecific antivenoms for West Africa. Toxicon, 56:363-372.

Cook, D.A.N., Owen, T., Wagstaff, S.C., Kinne, J., Wernery, U. and Harrison, R.A. (2010b) Analysis of camelid antibodies for antivenom development: Neutralisation of venom-induced pathology. Toxicon, 56:373-380.

Cook, D.A.N., Samarasekara, C.L., Wagstaff, S.C., Kinne, J., Wernery, U. and Harrison, R.A. (2010c) Analysis of camelid antibodies for antivenom development: Immunoreactivity and preclinical neutralisation of venom-induced pathology by IgG subclasses, and the effect of heat treatment. Toxicon, 56:596-603.

Calvete  J.J., Cid, P., Sanz, L., Segura A., Villalta M., Herrera M., León G., HarrisonR.A., Durfa N., NasidiA., Calvete  J.J., Theakston R.D.G., Warrell D.A. and Gutiérrez J-M. (2010) Antivenomic assessment of the immunological reactivity of EchiTAb-Plus-ICP, an antivenom for the treatment of snakebite envenoming in sub-Saharan Africa. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 82(6):1194-1201.

Vaiyapuri S., Wagstaff, S.C., Harrison R.A., Watson, K.A., GibbinsJ.M., and Hutchinson G. E. (2010) Purification and Functional Characterization of Rhiminopeptidase A, a Novel Aminopeptidase from the Venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros.PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 4(8):e796.

Harrison, R.A., Wagstaff, S.C., Cook, D.A.N., Kinne, J., Wernery, U. (2010) Reply to Professor Ratanabanangkoon’s letter entitled ‘D.A.N. Cook et al.’s account of the immunization of camels is at variance with the ‘low dose, low volume multi-site’ immunization protocol. Toxicon 56:1081. 


Casewell NR, Harrison RA, Wüster W, Wagstaff SC. 2009. Comparative venom gland transcriptome surveys of the saw-scaled vipers (Viperidae: Echis) reveal substantial intra-family gene diversity and novel venom transcripts. BMC Genomics.10: 564. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-10-564.

Wagstaff, S.C., Sanz, L., Juárez, P., Harrison, R.A., and Calvete, J.J. (2009) Combined snake venomics and venom gland transcriptomic analysis of the ocellated carpet viper, Echis ocellatus. Journal of Proteomics, 71:609-623.

Barlow A., Pook C.E., Harrison R.A. and Wüster W. (2009) Coevolution of diet and prey-specific venom activity supports the role of selection in snake venom evolution. Proc. R. Soc. B online pub 2009.0048.

Harrison R.A., Hargreaves A., Wagstaff S.C., Faragher B., and Lalloo D.G. (2009) Snake envenoming: a disease of poverty. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 3 (12):e569


Bazaa, A. Juarez, P., Marrakchi, N., Bel Lasfer, Z., El Ayeb, M., Harrison, R.A. Calvete, J.J. and Sainz, L. (2007) Loss of introns along the evolutionary diversification pathway of snake venom disintegrins evidenced by sequence analysis of genomic DNA from Microvipera lebetina transmediterranea and Echis ocellatus. Journal of Molecular Evolution 64:261-271.


Harrison, R.A. and Wernery, U. (2007) The unique properties of camelid IgG have potential to improve the treatment of snake bite. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 14(1):15-16.

Harrison, R.A., Ibison, F., Wilbraham, D. and Wagstaff, SC. (2007) Identification of cDNAs encoding viper venom hyaluronidases: cross-generic sequence conservation of full-length and unusually short variant transcripts. Gene 392:22-32.

Wagstaff, S.C., Favreau, P, Cheneval, O. Laing, G.D., Wilkinson, M.C., Miller, R, Stocklin, R and Harrison R.A. (2008) Molecular characterisation of endogenous snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitors Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 365:650-656.


Harrison R.A., Hasson, S.S., Harmsen, M., Laing, G.D., Conrath, K. and Theakston R.D.G.(2006)Neutralisation of venom-induced haemorrhage by IgG from camels and llamas immunised with viper venom and also by endogenous, non-IgG components in camelid sera. Toxicon 47:364-368.

Wagstaff, SC, Laing, G.D., Theakston R.D.G., Papaspyridis, C. and Harrison R.A. (2006) Bioinformatics and multiepitope DNA immunization to design rational snake antivenom PLOS Medicine 3(6):184

Wagstaff, SC and Harrison R.A. (2006) New insights into the mechanisms of Echis ocellatus envenoming by EST sequencing: identification of conserved  integrin binding motifs in SVMPs and molecular characterisation of a new group of putative toxins, the renin-like aspartic proteases. Gene 377:21-32.

Juarez, P., Wagstaff, SC , Sanz, L., Harrison R.A. and Calvete, J. (2006) Molecular cloning of a Bitis arietans disintegrin-like domain, BA-5A, not expressed in the venom proteome. A putative intermediate in the evolution of the long disintegrin bitistatin. Journal of Molecular Evolution 63:142-152.

Juarez, P., Wagstaff, SC , Sanz, L., Harrison R.A. and Calvete, J. (2006) Molecular cloning of Echis ocellatus disintegrins reveals non-expressed messengers and a pathway for the evolution of ocellatusin. Journal of Molecular Evolution 63:183-193